Museums Relaxation The product creation process starts with primary inputs such as resources, raw materials, other materials for construction, energy, and fuel. This could also include the agricultural products required to prepare food for the tourists.
A review of dominant theories within the context of tourism development. However, the processes that produce this development in tourism are affected by economic, socio-cultural and political forces.
This essay uses dominant theories and frameworks of development, Modernisation, Dependency, Neo-liberalism and Alternative Development. It will suggest that tourism has evolved within a trajectory of these dominant development theories and it maps the conceptual changes from development predominantly concerned with economic growth and inequality to those concerned about social, human and environmental issues.
The development frameworks provide a basis for understanding how tourism has developed and works as a development tool.
What does development mean?
The term itself is contested from many different viewpoints, and it will have different connotations when used by different cultures and nations.
This interventionist approach considers development as reformist states cooperating with foreign investment over development plans Brohman, In the context of tourism, modernisation development strategies generated foreign capital as well as increasing employment and facilitating the transfer of technology Telfer and Sharpley, Just as modern society focuses on mass consumerism, large-scale mass tourism was about mass consumption, with the development of large resorts around the world.
Cancun, Mexico and Benidorm, Spain are examples of this approach Thompson Modernisation encourages socio-cultural changes, as economic growth demands these changes as a foundational stage for further economic development.
Similar to imperialism and colonialism, tourism offered, to a certain extent, improvements in health care and the supply of potable water, better infrastructure and sanitation, and better housing and education Harrison, D.
The theory suggests economic development and modernisation of living standards should go hand in hand, and lifestyles and living standards are measured against Euro-American models.
However, such deterministic development controls and limits human interaction, and not vice versa. While economic modernisation is measured against Euro-American economic models, cultural modernisation is judged differently. Modernisation of culture and lifestyles are criticised as 'cultural imperialism', 'demonstration effects' and 'assimilation'.
Tourists often want to experience the past and nostalgia while travelling internationally, they do not approve of loss of traditions and charms through modernisation and tourism development needs to protect cultures and value systems of host communities, and be a catalyst for strengthening cultural identities since these traditional communities become invaluable commodities.
The tourism industry, does not modernise everything since indigenous lifestyles and cultures are valuable commodities which are sold as tourist attractions.
Post-colonial Neo-Marxist critics opposed Modernisation, saying that instead of encouraging development, relationships with the capitalistic West actually has the opposite effect, leading to poor economic growth with social and cultural impoverishment blamed on the inability to adopt capitalist models of production Harrison, The periphery economies are dependent upon the expanding economies of the core where wealth is accumulated Willis,K.
Economic policies that create the diffusion of development from the West to the peripheries under the cloak of modernisation are seen as imposing structural change and reinforcing elites as agents of control.
Dependancy theorists criticise this diffusionist paradigm as not relating to existing conditions in contemporary under-developed regions and several researchers have noted that forms of dependent development emerging Briton; Briton, ; Milne, DT suggests that because of historical unequal relationships between rich and poor countries, developing nations are kept in a state of underdevelopment.
Development projects foster economic dependency of developing countries in three main ways, through 1 technology produced in developed countries: High rates of leakages associated with international tourism reinforce this dependency and vulnerability of developing nations.
These controls manage both the movement of tourists from core to peripheral, and have power over operations of hotels or even whole resorts Britton, Din points out that this is not always the case and cites Penang, Malaysia where locals own several of the luxury international standard accommodation chains.
They arrange the accommodation, transportation and excursions for package tours, in this way dominant tourism sectors and squeeze out smaller enterprises by controlling tourist spending and movements.
They cannot, however, control all tourist consumption for example purchases of entertainment, services and other items. He argues that foreign corporations control the tourism industry.
While such critiques gave modernisation theory a battering in the s, the s saw a rapid growth in support for a revamped form known as Neo-liberalism NL. NL is a free market political and economic theory which advocates free trade though competitive global markets. De-regularisation, privatisation and market based development are its characteristic features.
However, the lessening of state involvement resulted in less spending on social programs such as health, education, welfare and environment, and limited the power of trade unions. For example, as a result of Structural Adjustment Lending Programs SALPS governments had to embrace neoliberal doctrines resulting in the cutting back on government spending as mentioned before.Enhancing the tourism product and visitor experience Fern Gully is a winding scenic stretch of road which starts in Ocho Rios and runs for three miles, ending up in the community of Colgate.
Oct 19, · Tourism is a huge—and growing—global economic sector. According to data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), in there were billion tourist . All Season- All Reason Tourism Destinations Numerous sprawling parks speak of Uttarakhand's continuous efforts to conserve its natural ecosystem; its rich culture and religious heritage ensures that it remains on top of everyone's travel plan.
Tourism product development is the result of collaborative efforts of various stakeholders. It involves identifying all the stakeholders in private and public sectors, DMOs, Tourism and allied businesses, and their respective roles in creating or developing a part of a tourism product.
Make Maryland your next dream vacation spot & explore mountains to the west and the tranquil Chesapeake Bay to the east. Discover More in MD! According to both the World Tourism Organization (WTO), and the World Travel Tourism Council (WTTC) the travel and tourism industry is the largest industry and employer in the world.
Upon completion of your degree you will possess a sound theoretical understanding of the comprehensive study of tourism.