This was an unprecedented piece of international diplomacy, since it included so many different countries. The closest legal antecedents were multinational agreements made in at the Treaty of Vienna to control navigation on the Danube and Rhine Rivers. The most important consequence of the Berlin Act was the reduction of tensions that had resulted from the French explorations in the Congo basin Savorgnan de Brazza,the establishment of Belgian posts in the Congothe French invasion of Tunisiaand the British takeover of Egypt In essence, the representatives agreed that rivalries over African soil were not serious enough to justify a war between European nations.
Delegates from GreeceRomania, Serbia, and Montenegro attended the sessions in which their states were concerned, but were not members of the congress.
The congress was solicited by the rivals of the Russian Empire, particularly by Austria-Hungary and Britainand hosted in by Otto von Bismarck. The Congress of Berlin proposed and ratified the Treaty of Berlin. The congress revised or eliminated 18 of the 29 articles in the Treaty of San Stefano.
Furthermore, using as a foundation The congress of berlin treaties of Paris and Washingtonthe treaty effected a rearrangement of the Eastern situation.
Main issues The principal mission of the World Powers at the congress was to deal a fatal blow to the burgeoning movement of pan-Slavism.
The movement caused serious concern in Berlin and particularly in Viennawhich was afraid that the repressed Slavic nationalities within their own empire would revolt against the Habsburgs.
The governments in London and Paris were nervous about the diminishing influence of the Ottoman Empire in the south, which invited increased Russian power and influence in the region, where both Britain and France were poised to colonize Egypt and Palestine.
Russia and Austria-Hungary both had vested interests in the Balkans, which bordered their Empires and where they claimed the right to protect, respectively, Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Christians.
Through the Treaty of San Stefano, the Russians, led by chancellor Alexander Gorchakov, had managed to create the Bulgarian autonomous principality under Ottoman Empire 's nominal rule, thus sparking British well-entrenched fears of growing Russian influence in the East.
This state had access to the Aegean Sea and comprised a very large portion of Macedonia that could have at any time threatened the Straits that separate the Black Sea from the Mediterranean. This arrangement was not acceptable to the British Empirewhich considered the entire Mediterranean Sea to be, in effect, a British sphere of influence, and saw any Russian attempt to gain access there as a grave threat to its power.
Just a week before the Congress, Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli had concluded a secret alliance with the Ottomans against Russia, whereby Britain was allowed to occupy the strategically placed island of Cyprus.
This agreement predetermined Disraeli's position during the Congress and led him to issue threats to unleash a war against Russia if she did not comply with Turkish demands.
Ceding to Russia's pressure, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro were declared independent principalities.
The full independence of Bulgaria, however, was denied. It was promised autonomy, and guarantees were made against Turkish interference, but these were largely ignored.
The Turkish government, or Porte, agreed to obey the specifications contained in the Organic Law ofand to guarantee the civil rights of non-Muslim subjects. Bosnia and Herzegovina were placed under the administration of Austria-Hungary.
Austria-Hungary feared nationalist revolts from its own ethnic groups, among whom Slavs were already well represented. It was, ironically perhaps, the type of nationalism that had led to German and Italian reunification that was also sweeping through the Balkans, the idea that distinct linguistic-ethnic groups constituted a "nation," especially if they were also a majority in a given territory.
Russia agreed that Bulgaria should be split up into three parts. The southwestern part remained under Turkish rule. Eastern Rumelia became an autonomous province and the remainder was the new state of Bulgaria. Russia retained southern Bessarabia and Austria received the right to "occupy and administer" Bosnia and Herzegovina, a controversial clause which eventually precipitated the Bosnian crisis of Bulgarian autonomy after the Treaty of Berlin.
They were able to effectively persuade other European leaders that a free and independent Bulgaria would greatly improve the security risks posed by a disintegrating Ottoman Empire.
According to German historian Erich Eyck, Bismarck supported Russia's persuasion that "Turkish rule over a Christian community Bulgaria was an anachronism which undoubtedly gave rise to insurrection and bloodshed and should therefore be ended. Bismarck's ultimate goal during the Congress of Berlin was not to upset Germany's status on the international platform.Aug 08, · Congress of Berlin | Source Congress of Berlin was held in the city of Berlin from 13th June to 13th July of It was a meeting to rectify the Treaty of San Stefano () and to settle peace between the Ottoman Empire of Turkey and the Empire of metin2sell.coms: 5.
The Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July ) was a meeting of the representatives of six great powers of the time (Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Germany), the Ottoman Empire and four Balkan states (Greece, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro).
The Congress produced the "Berlin Act" of which established the "conventional basin of the Congo" (bigger than the geographical basin) and opened it to European free trade, made it neutral in times of war, and declared support for efforts to end the slave trade. The Congress of Berlin took place from 13 June to 13 July Its general purpose was to create a new peace settlement between the Ottoman Empire and Russia after the Russian victory in the Russo-Turkish War (–).
The specific goals of the congress included a revision of the Treaty of San.
The Congress of Berlin (June 13 - July 13, ) was a meeting of the European Great Powers' and the Ottoman Empire's leading statesmen in Berlin in It was organized under the auspices of the Concert of Europe.
Congress of Berlin, (June 13–July 13, ), diplomatic meeting of the major European powers at which the Treaty of Berlin replaced the Treaty of San Stefano, which had been signed by Russia and Turkey (March 3, ) at the conclusion of .