Psychology Cognitive psychology Cognitive psychology assumes that humans have the capacity to process and organize information in their mind. It is concerned less with visible behavior and more with the thought processes behind it. Cognitive psychology tries to understand concepts such as memory and decision making.
Every individual on this earth is different from the other. No one person is fully like other person. Every person differs from the other, either physically or psychologically.
Even the twins are no exception to this. They differ in some aspects or other. Particularly when we look at people from psychological point of view these differences are quite obvious.
In many instances even the children differ from their parents. They will have some similarities with some forefathers or grandparents instead of their parents. What makes these differences to exist? What are the causes? The answer to these queries can be traced from two factors, viz. The basic sources of Heredity and environment psychology development are heredity and environment.
Heredity refers to the genetic inheritance received by every individual at the time of conception. The origin of every human life can be traced to a single cell called zygote. It is formed by the union of sperm and ovum.
The sperm and ovum will contain 23 pairs of chromosomes out of which one will be sex determining chromosome. Female will have 23 pairs of XX chromosomes. Male will have 22 pairs of XX and 2 single, represented as XY.
X chromosome from mother and Y chromosome from father will lead to male offspring, XX from both parents give rise to female.
In each chromosome there are innumerable genes. These genes are the real determiners of hereditary characteristics—which pass on from one generation to the other.
At the time of conception, the genes from chromosomes of both the father and the mother fuse together and determine the traits of the offspring to be born. The physical characteristics such as height, weight, colour of eye and skin, social and intellectual behaviour are determined by heredity.
Differences in these characteristics are due to the change in the genes transmitted. Fraternal twins also differ from each other, because they are born out of different genes.
However, we find more resemblances in identical twins because they are born out of monozygotic. In simple terms environment means the society, the fields of society and even the whole world. Like heredity, environment also has been found to play a very important role in determining the behaviour and personality development of an individual.
The environmental influences are those which act upon the organism at the earlier stages of development, i. Environment includes all the extrinsic forces, influences and conditions which affect the life, nature, behaviour, the growth, development and maturation of living organism Douglass and Holland.
Hence, we can say that environment means all that is found around the individual. The cytoplasm is an intracellular environment which influences the development.
Though the life begins with single cell, in the process of cell division several new cells are formed and a new internal environment comes into existence. As the fetus develops the endocrine glands are formed.
The hormonal secretion by these glands gives rise to another intracellular environment. Hormones are necessary for normal development, but defects in hormone secretion like over or under secretion may lead to congenital deformities. The growing embryo is surrounded by amniotic fluid in the uterus which creates another environment.
This fluid will provide the necessary warmth and protection against the dangers due to organisms and other chemical effects on fetus.
The fetus is also connected to the mother by the umbilical cord, through which the nourishment is supplied. Sufficient nourishment is necessary from the mother. Otherwise the child will suffer from malnutrition.Heredity And Environment Psychology.
HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT The nature versus nurture controversy— that is, how much of our behavior is due to inherited factors and how much to environmental factors Heredity is the passing of traits to offspring (from its parent or ancestors).
With its clear and concise presentation, Behavioral Genetics, 7th edition introduces students to the field’s underlying principles, defining experiments, ongoing controversies, and most recent metin2sell.com text provides students with an understanding of heredity, it’s DNA basis, the methods used to discover genetic influence on behavior and identify specific genes.
Heredity, Environment, and The Question How by Anne Anastasi was originally presented as an address of the President (Division of General Psychology) of the American Psychological Association in Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.
It seeks to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations – that is, the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection in human evolution.
Adaptationist thinking about physiological mechanisms. The nature vs. nurture debate within psychology is concerned with the extent to which particular aspects of behavior are a product of either inherited (i.e., genetic) or acquired (i.e., learned) characteristics.
Today, as never before, people are interested in psychology and what it has to say to mankind. The study of psychology deals with the mind, its senses and human behavior.