Hallucinogenic Drugs in Psychiatric Research and Treatment:
Hallucinogenic Drugs in Psychiatric Research and Treatment: Research with Iysergic acid diethylamide and related hallucinogens with thousands of patients and control subjects was associated with acceptable safety when subjects were carefully screened, supervised, and followed up.
Current American and European studies emphasize systematic psychopharmacology, in addition to psychotherapy protocols.
Human hallucinogen research will help define unique mind-brain interfaces, and provide mechanistic hypotheses and treatment options for psychiatric disorders. It is critical that human hallucinogen research in the ls make use of state of the art methodologies, or consensually define when modifications are required.
Training and supervisory issues also must be explicitly addressed. Hallucinogenic substances found in fungi, plants, and animals have been used on all continents, and in a wide variety of cultures, both highly advanced and preliterate Dobkin de Rios, Mescaline, from the peyote cactus, has been used in clinical research protocols from the s to the present Mitchell, The thousand-times more potent effects of LSD were discovered in by Albert Hofmann, 5 years after its synthesis Stoll, The study of hallucinogenic drugs in humans was, and remains, important for several reasons.
First, they elicit a multifaceted clinical syndrome, affecting many of the functions that characterize the human mind, including affect, cognition, volition, interoception, and perception. Second, naturally occurring psychotic syndromes share features with those elicited by these drugs.
Understanding effects and mechanisms of action of hallucinogens may provide novel insights and treatments into endogenous psychoses. Third, increasing use and abuse of hallucinogens over the last several years, particularly LSD, by young adults may produce a similar spate of adverse psychiatric sequelae seen with the first wave of their illicit use in the s.
Treatment of these adverse effects consume scarce public resources and safe, selective, and efficacious treatments of acute and chronic negative effects of these drugs are needed.
Finally, the enhancement of the psychotherapeutic process, sometimes in treatment refractory patients, reported by early studies, has relevance to current emphasis on time-limited psychotherapeutic interventions.
Nomenclature Many terms have been used to describe the effects of these drugs, including psychedelic mind manifestingpsychodysleptic disturbing the mindphantasticant, psychotogen, oneirogen producing dreamsentheogen generating religious experiencephanerothyme making feelings visiblepsychotomimetic, and schizotoxin Grinspoon and Bakalar, ; Stafford, Psychedelic represents the nonmedical, recreational, and illicit use of these drugs, while hallucinogen refers to these compounds within a medical-legal context.
The "classical" hallucinogens belong to several chemical families: Low doses of the dissociative anesthetics, phencyclidine and ketamine Siegel,and antimuscarinic agents Ketchum et al.
However, hallucinogens do not produce anesthesia at high doses, as do the former compounds, nor is there a clouding of consciousness at "psychedelic" doses, as with the latter. A clinically useful manner of representing hallucinogens refers to their temporal properties: Intravenous DMT is an example Strassman et al.
Onset is within 15 to 30 minutes, peak effects are at 1 to 3 hours, with duration up to 6 hours. Duration of action may last 18 to 24 hours. Prevalence of Use Hallucinogen use in the United States remained relatively constant from the late s to the late s Pope et al. While the magnitude of this rise is slight, it stands in contrast to the abuse of other drugs.The decades-long virtual dormancy of human hallucinogen research stands as a unique case in the history of modern clinical pharmacology.
It is important for researchers going forward to understand the role that safety factors, as well as sociological and political factors, played in the history and cessation of human hallucinogen research.
Between and , research on LSD and other hallucinogens generated over scientific papers, several dozen books, and six international conferences.
In total, LSD was prescribed as a treatment for over 40, patients.
LSD and OCD In the journal Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Franz X. Vollenweider and Michael Kometer gave a broad overview of research into hallucinogens over the past half century.
May 19, · Health Psychedelic Science: The surge in psychiatric research using hallucinogens Dr Timothy Leary, a former Harvard Professor charged with illegal possession of marijuana, during a debate about.
While the exact mechanisms by which hallucinogens and dissociative drugs cause their effects are not yet clearly understood, research suggests that they work at least partially by temporarily disrupting communication between neurotransmitter systems throughout the brain and spinal cord that regulate mood, sensory perception, sleep, hunger, body .
Clinical Applications of Hallucinogens: A Review Albert Garcia-Romeu and Brennan Kersgaard Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Peter H. Addy.