University Records Management Program web site outlining policies and procedures for records retention requirements, including selective general records schedules. Finding aids to Archival Records and Manuscript Collections The Rutgers University Archives continually develops online finding aids to many of its records and manuscript collections pertaining to University history using Encoded Archival Description EADa standard adopted by the archival community to deliver electronic versions of finding aids over the web.
Lin Zexu volunteered to take on the task of suppressing opium. In Marchhe became Special Imperial Commissioner in Cantonwhere he ordered the foreign traders to surrender their opium stock.
He confined the British to the Canton Factories and cut off their supplies. When Elliot promised that the British government would pay for their opium stock, the merchants surrendered their 20, chests of opium, which were destroyed in public.
An expeditionary force was placed under Elliot and his cousin, Rear-Admiral George Elliotas joint plenipotentiaries in He instructed the Elliot cousins to occupy one of the Chusan islands, to present a letter from himself to a Chinese official for the Emperorthen to proceed to the Gulf of Bohai for a treaty, and if the Chinese resisted, blockade the key ports of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers.
On 20 January, Elliot announced "the conclusion of preliminary arrangements", which included the cession of Hong Kong Island and its harbour to the British Crown.
The Consul in Canton, Harry Parkesclaimed the hauling down of the flag and arrest of the crew were "an insult of very grave character". In MarchPalmerston appointed Lord Elgin as Plenipotentiary with the aim of securing a new and satisfactory treaty. A French expeditionary force joined the British to avenge the execution of a French missionary in In the Treaty of Tientsin, the Chinese accepted British demands to open more ports, navigate the Yangtze River, legalise the opium trade and have diplomatic representation in Beijing.
During the conflict, the British occupied the Kowloon Peninsulawhere the flat land was valuable training and resting ground. Since the foreign powers had agreed by the late 19th century that it was no longer permissible to acquire outright sovereignty over any parcel of Chinese territory, and in keeping with the other territorial cessions China made to RussiaGermany and France that same year, the extension of Hong Kong took the form of a year lease.
The lease consisted of the rest of Kowloon south of the Shenzhen River and islands, which became known as the New Territories. The British formally took possession on 16 April Japanese occupation of Hong Kong Japanese Army crossing the border from the mainland, Induring the Second World War, the British reached an agreement with the Chinese government under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek that if Japan attacked Hong Kong, the Chinese National Army would attack the Japanese from the rear to relieve pressure on the British garrison.
On 8 December, the Battle of Hong Kong began when Japanese air bombers effectively destroyed British air power in one attack.
The British commander, Major-General Christopher Maltbyconcluded that the island could not be defended for long unless he withdrew his brigade from the mainland. On 18 December, the Japanese crossed Victoria Harbour.
Maltby recommended a surrender to Governor Sir Mark Youngwho accepted his advice to reduce further losses. The British casualties were 2, killed or missing and 2, wounded. The Japanese reported 1, killed and 6, wounded. Hong Kong was transformed into a Japanese colony, with Japanese businesses replacing the British.
However, the Japanese Empire had severe logistical difficulties and by the food supply for Hong Kong was problematic.
The overlords became more brutal and corrupt, and the Chinese gentry became disenchanted. With the surrender of Japan, the transition back to British rule was smooth, for on the mainland the Nationalist and Communist forces were preparing for a civil war and ignored Hong Kong.
In the long run the occupation strengthened the pre-war social and economic order among the Chinese business community by eliminating some conflicts of interests and reducing the prestige and power of the British.
He formally accepted the Japanese surrender on 16 September in Government House.Contents 1. British Knapsack Timeline, 2.
Discussion of British Knapsack Evolution, Single-Pouch and Double-Pouch Packs, and Carrying Blankets 3. Notes Regarding the Use of Over-the-Shoulder Blanket Rolls 4. Follow-Up: “Like a Pedlar's. British rule began with the occupation of the island on 26 January.
Commodore James Bremer, commander-in-chief of British forces in China, took formal possession of the island at Possession Point, where the Union Jack was raised under a feu de joie from the marines and a royal salute from the warships.
New Jersey State Policemen’s Benevolent Association This policeman is torn between his hate for the British occupation and the abuse he gets from the natives on a daily basis. Politically, he is on the Burmese side because he despises the oppressive British rule in Burma.
Personal Narrative: My Experience in the Air Force. Allen describes the British occupation of Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Charleston. Unlike most histories of the Revolutionary War, he gives little attention to many of the war’s well-known battles, and instead analyzes conflicts on the New York-Canada frontier, the so-called Neutral Ground in New Jersey, and in Georgia and the Carolinas/5(50).
Narrative history of Rutgers University, including its founding as Queen's College in ; renaming to Rutgers College in ; transformation of the 19th century college; Rutgers and its relationship with the State of New Jersey; the Depression and World War II years; postwar expansion and the State University; and the research university.
(CIO) A New Deal-era labor organization that broke away from the American Federation of Labor (AFL) in order to organize unskilled industrial workers regardless of their particular economic sector or craft.
The CIO gave a great boost to labor organizing in the midst of the Great Depression and during World War II.